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O

Obliques - Abbreviation for external obliques, the muscles to either side of abdominals that rotate and flex the trunk.

Octacosanol - A naturally derived wheat germ oil concentrate which has been clinically proven to increase oxygen utilization when exercising.

Odd Lifts - Exercises used in competition other than snatch and clean and jerk, such as squats, bench presses, and barbell curls.

Olympian - A term reserved for use when referring only to a bodybuilder who has competed in the Mr. Olympia or Ms. Olympia competitions.

Olympic Barbell - A special type of barbell used in weightufting and powerlifting competitions, but also used by bodybuilders in heavy basic exercises such as squats, bench presses, barbell bent rows, standing barbell curls, standing barbell presses, and deadlifts. An Olympic barbell sans collars weighs 45 pounds, and each collar weighs five pounds.

Olympic Lifting - The type of weightlifting competition contested at the Olympic Games every four years, as well as at national and international competitions each year. Two lifts (the snatch and the clean and jerk) are contested in a wide variety of weight classes.

Onion Skin - Slang denoting skin with very low percentage of subcutaneous fat which helps accentuate muscularity.

Optimal nutrition - The best possible nutrition; distinct from merely adequate nutrition, which is characterized by no overt deficiency. This term describes people free from marginal deficiencies, imbalances, and toxicities, and who are not at risk for such.

Osmolality - The total number of small particles (e.g. sodium, glucose) in a solution. Osmolality can influence the movement of water across a membrane (e.g. the intestinal wall) such that water is pulled from a lower concentration of particles (lower osmolality) to a higher concentration of particles (higher osmolality).

Overload Principle - Applying a greater load than normal to a muscle to increase its capability.

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