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F

Failure - That point in an exercise at which you have so fully fatigued your working muscles that they can no longer complete an additional repetition of a movement with strict biomechanics. You should always take your post-warm-up sets at least to the point of momentary muscular failure, and frequently past that point.

Fascia - Fibrous connective tissue that covers, supports and separates ~l muscles and muscle groups. It also unites skin with underlying tissue.

Fast-Twitch - Refers to muscle cells that fire quickly and are utilized in anaerobic activities like sprinting and powerlifting.

Fats (Lipids) - Dietary fats can be used as an energy source, or stored as fat tissues. Regular aerobic/endurance exercise increases the ability of muscles to use fat as an energy source during exercise. Stored fat is used for energy during low/moderate exercise. 1g fat = 9 calories.

Fat free mass (FFM) - The part of the body not containing fat, including: bone, muscle, skin, organs, water, hair, Hood, and lymph.

Flex - Bend or decrease angle of a joint; contract a muscle.

Flexibility - A suppleness of joints, muscle masses, and connective tissues which lets you move your limbs over an exaggerated range of motion, a valuable quality in body-building training, since it promotes optimum physical development. Flexibility can only be attained through systematic stretching training, which should form a cor-nerstone of your overall bodybuilding philosophy.

Flexion - Bending in contrast to extending, as in leg flexions.

Flex Wheeler - Described by Arnold Schwarzenegger as being one of the greatest bodybuilders he has ever seen.

Flush - Cleanse a muscle by increasing the blood supply to it, removing toxins left in muscle by exertion.

Folic Acid - This vitamin is used for red blood cell formation, protein metabolism, appetite, body growth, and reproduction.

Forced Reps - Forced reps are a frequently used method of extending a set past the point of failure to induce greater gains in muscle mass and quality. With forced reps, a training partner pulls upward on the bar just enough for you to grind out two or three reps past the failure thresh-old.

Form - This is simply another word to indicate the biome-chanics used during the performance of any bodybuild-ing or weight-training movement. Perfect form involves moving only the muscles specitied in an exercise description.

Franco Columbu - The Sardinian strongman and two time Mr. Olympia 1976 and 1981.

Frank Zane - Nicknamed The Chemist and three time Mr. Olympia 1977, 1978 and 1979.

Fred Hatfield - Powerlifter known as Dr Squat.

Free Form Amino Acids - Separate and isolate amino acids not bound or linked to any other amino acids.

Free Style Training - Training all body parts in one workout.

Free Weights - Barbells, dumbbells, and related equip-ment. Serious bodybuilders use a combination of free weights and such exercise machines as those manufac-tured by Nautilus and Universal Gyms, but they primarily use free weights in their workouts.

Frequent Feeding - Eating often throughout the day to work with your body, not against it. fly eating at regular intervals throughout the day (approximately every two to three hours), you can keep your metabolism elevated and energy levels stable.

Fructose - The main type of sugar found in fruit. It's sweeter than sucrose (table sugar).

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