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A - This vitamin is used for night vision, body tissue repair and maintenance.

Actin - A protein in muscle fibres that acts with myosin to help muscles contract and relax.

Abduction - Movement of a limb away from middle of body, such as bringing arm to shoulder height from hanging-down position.

Abs - Abbreviation for abdominal muscles.

Abyss - A barrier which stands between knowing what needs to be done and actually doing it

Accommodating Resistance - Increasing resistance as lifter's force increases through range of motion. Nautilus machines are said to provide accommodating resistance.

Adduction - Movement of a limb toward middle of body, such as bringing arm to side from extended position at shoulder.

Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) - An Adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate molecules. ATP is the prime source of energy for all living cells.

Adhesion - Fibrous patch holding muscles or other parts together that are normally separated. Aerobic - A process that uses oxygen for energy production.

Aerobic Exercise - Prolonged, moderate-intensity work that uses up oxygen at or below the level at which your cardiorespiratory (heart-lung) system can replenish oxy-gen in the working muscles. Aerobic literally means with oxygen, and it is the only type of exercise which burns body fat to meet its energy needs. Bodybuilders engage in aerobic workouts to develop additional cardiorespiratory fitness, as well as to burn off excess body fat to achieve peak contest muscularity. Common aerobic activities in-clude running, cycling, swimming, dancing, and walk-ing. Depending on how vigorously you play them, most racquet sports can also be aerobic exercise.

AFWB - American Federation of Women Bodybuilders - group that administers women's amateur bodybuilding in America.

Agonist - Muscle directly engaged in contraction, which is primarily responsible for movement of a body part.

All-or-None - Muscle fiber contracts fully or it does not contract at all.

Alpha Ketoglutarate (AKG) - Potential increase in ATP. Improves aerobic/anaerobic exercise if combined with vitamin B6.

Amino acid - The structural unit or building block of protein.

Amino acids - Chemical molecules which combine to form the various proteins. There are 22 common amino acids. The human body can synthesize (manufacture) 14 of them. The other 8 must come from the diet and are therefore called essential.

AMUR - An abbreviation for the Adult Minimum Daily Requirement of certain nutrients as established by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA).

Anabolic Drugs - Also called anabolic steroids, these are artificial male hormones that aid in nitrogen retention and thereby add to a male bodybuilder's muscle mass and strength. These drugs are not without hazardous side effects, however, and they are legally available only through a physician's prescription. Steroids are available in most gyms via the black market, but it is very danger-ous to use such unknown substances to increase muscle mass.

Anabolic Steroid - Synthetic chemical that mimics the muscle-building characteris-tics of the male hormone testosterone.

Anaerobic - A process independent of oxygen for energy production.

Anaerobic Exercise - Exercise of much higher intensity than aerobic work, which uses up oxygen more quickly than the body can replenish it in the working muscles. Anaerobic exercise eventually builds up a significant oxygen debt that forces an athlete to terminate the exercise session rather quickly. Anaerobic exercise (the kind of exercise to which bodybuilding training belongs) burns up glycogen (muscle sugar) to supply its energy needs. Fast sprinting is a typical anaerobic form of exercise.

Anabolism - The process of building larger compounds and cellular matter from simpler compounds - such as in the building of muscle fibre from nutrients.

Androgenic Drugs - Androgenics are drugs that simulate the effects of the male hormone testosterone in the human body. Androgens do build a degree of strength and muscle mass, but they also stimulate secondary sex characteristics such as increased body hair, a deepened voice, and high levels of aggression. Indeed, many bodybuilders and pow-erlifters take androgens to stimulate aggressiveness in the gym, resulting in more productive workouts .

Antagonist - Muscle that counteracts the agonist, lengthening when agonist muscle contracts.

Antioxidant - Small compounds that minimize tissue oxidation and help con-trol free radicals and their negative effects.

APC - American Physique Committee, Inc. Group that administers men's amateur bodybuilding in America.

Arm Blaster - Aluminum or fiberglass strip about 5" x 24", supported at waist height by a strap around neck. Keeps elbows from moving while curling barbell or dumbbells or doing triceps pushdowns.

Arnold Schwarzenegger - The best bodybuilder ever and seven time IFBB Mr. Olympia.

Arthur Jones - The father of high intensity training and inventor of Nautilus equipment.

Atrophy - Withering away - decrease in size and functional ability of tissue or organs.

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